What’s Your System Monitoring Solution?

System Monitoring Solution Cover

Prometheus and Grafana are today’s standards in the world of monitoring solutions. So, if you need an ideal system monitoring solution for the Linux environment, you should definitely consider installing these two with exporters best suited for your environment.

Today, we are going to use one of the best-known exporters called Node Exporter. It is used for scraping hardware and OS metrics exposed by *NIX kernels, written in Go with pluggable metric collectors. Node Exporter gives us general metrics like CPU, RAM, disk usage, and so on. For the purpose of this task, I will be using CentOS 7.6 OpenVZ VPS. So, let’s cut right to the chase and open some terminals.

System info:

[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/*release
CentOS Linux release 7.6.1810 (Core)
NAME="CentOS Linux"
VERSION="7 (Core)"

Now, let’s upgrade.

[[email protected] ~]# yum upgrade -y

On this occasion, we are going to do everything from the terminal.

Prometheus

Our first task is to install Prometheus.

Firstly, you need to download the Prometheus source code:

[[email protected] ~]# wget --progress=dot https://github.com/$(wget https://github.com/prometheus/prometheus/releases/ -O - | egrep '/.*/.*/*.linux-amd64.tar.gz' -o)

Secondly, you need to create the necessary directories:

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /etc/prometheus
[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /var/lib/prometheus

Then, we are going to add a dedicated user without shell access and home directory:

[[email protected] ~]# useradd --no-create-home --shell /bin/false prometheus

Change the ownership of the previously created directories:

[[email protected] ~]# chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus
[[email protected] ~]# chown -R prometheus:prometheus /var/lib/prometheus

Unpack the Prometheus source code:

[[email protected] ~]# tar -xvzf prometheus-*.tar.gz

Copy the files to their dedicated paths:

[[email protected] ~]# cp -r prometheus-*/prometheus /usr/local/bin/
[[email protected] ~]# cp -r prometheus-*/promtool /usr/local/bin/
[[email protected] ~]# cp -r prometheus-*/consoles /etc/prometheus/
[[email protected] ~]# cp -r prometheus-*/console_libraries/ /etc/prometheus/

Change ownership:

[[email protected] ~]# chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/prometheus
[[email protected] ~]# chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/promtool
[[email protected] ~]# chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/consoles
[[email protected] ~]# chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/console_libraries

Copy the main Prometheus config file and changing its owner:

[[email protected] ~]# cp -r prometheus-*/prometheus.yml /etc/prometheus/
[[email protected] ~]# chown prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml

Now for the fun part.

Add custom systemd service:

[[email protected] ~]# cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service
[Unit]
Description=Prometheus
Wants=network-online.target
After=network-online.target

[Service]
User=prometheus
Group=prometheus
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/prometheus \
--config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml \
--storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ \
--web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles \
--web.console.libraries=/etc/prometheus/console_libraries

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

Systemd daemon needs to be restarted since we have created a new service in the previous step: 

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl daemon-reload

Then, it is time to start the Prometheus service and enable it to start automatically at boot:

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable --now prometheus && systemctl status prometheus
● prometheus.service - Prometheus
Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
Active: active (running) since Sun 2019-07-21 08:19:48 MDT; 10ms ago
Main PID: 1848 (prometheus)
CGroup: /system.slice/prometheus.service
└─1848 /usr/local/bin/prometheus --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles --web.console.libraries=/etc/prometheus/console_libraries...

Provided that you have done all the steps correctly, you should have a fully functional Prometheus by now.

Node Exporter

Secondly, we need to install Node Exporter:

[[email protected] ~]# wget --progress=dot https://github.com/$(wget https://github.com/prometheus/node_exporter/releases/ -O - | egrep '/.*/.*/*.linux-amd64.tar.gz' -o)

Adding a dedicated user:

[[email protected] ~]# useradd --no-create-home --shell /bin/false nodeusr

Unpacking:

[[email protected] ~]# tar -xvzf node_exporter-*.tar.gz

Copying:

[[email protected] ~]# cp -r node_exporter-*/node_exporter /usr/local/bin/

Ownership:

[[email protected] ~]# chown nodeusr:nodeusr /usr/local/bin/node_exporter

Adding systemd service:

[[email protected] ~]# cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/node_exporter.service
[Unit]
Description=Node Exporter
After=network.target

[Service]
User=nodeusr
Group=nodeusr
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/node_exporter

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

Systemd daemon reload:

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl daemon-reload

Starting the Node Exporter service and enabling it at boot sequence:

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable --now node_exporter && systemctl status node_exporter
● node_exporter.service - Node Exporter
Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/node_exporter.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
Active: active (running) since Sun 2019-07-21 08:22:59 MDT; 7ms ago
Main PID: 1901 (node_exporter)
CGroup: /system.slice/node_exporter.service
└─1901 /usr/local/bin/node_exporter

Jul 21 08:22:59 nikola systemd[1]: Started Node Exporter.

Grafana

The last step is installing Grafana. We will be using the official Grafana repo as our installation source.

Firstly, add repo:

[[email protected] ~]# cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/yum.repos.d/grafana.repo
[grafana]
name=grafana
baseurl=https://packages.grafana.com/oss/rpm
repo_gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://packages.grafana.com/gpg.key
sslverify=1
sslcacert=/etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
EOF

Then, install Grafana:

[[email protected] ~]# yum install grafana -y

Finally, start Grafana and check its status:

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable --now grafana-server && systemctl status grafana-server
● grafana-server.service - Grafana instance
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/grafana-server.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
Active: active (running) since Sun 2019-07-21 08:25:10 MDT; 6ms ago
Docs: http://docs.grafana.org
Main PID: 2018 (grafana-server)
CGroup: /system.slice/grafana-server.service
└─2018 /usr/sbin/grafana-server --config=/etc/grafana/grafana.ini --pidfile=/var/run/grafana/grafana-server.pid --packaging=rpm cfg:default.paths.logs=/var/log/grafana cfg:default.paths.data=/var/lib/grafana cfg:default.path...

If you have done everything right, you will be able to access your new shining monitoring at:

http://FQDN or IP:3000
Default user: admin 
Default password: admin

In case you are experiencing any issues while opening the URL, please check your firewall settings and open ports.

Wrap Up

Well done! Your ideal system monitoring solution is set and ready to use! When we meet again we will create custom graphs, set up email and other channels of notifications, and much more. Until then, make sure to read our Blog and follow us on Social Networks to keep up with our latest innovations. Of course, you are welcome to contact us at [email protected] in case you have any questions regarding any aspect of our expertise.

#Until next time.
#Kind regards

#Nikola Ilic
#Senior Linux System Administrator / DevOps Rookie
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